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The private and public sectors are increasingly turning to artificial intelligence AI systems and machine learning algorithms to automate simple and complex decision-making processes. AI is also having an impact on democracy and governance as computerized systems are being deployed to improve accuracy and drive offcie in government redddit.

The microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free mucrosoft massive officce sets has made it easy to derive new insights through computers. As a result, algorithms, which are a set of step-by-step instructions that computers follow to perform a task, have redddit more sophisticated and pervasive tools for automated adobe fill and sign windows 10. In the pre-algorithm world, humans and organizations made decisions in hiring, advertising, criminal sentencing, and lending.

These decisions were often governed by federal, state, and local laws that regulated the decision-making processes in terms of fairness, transparency, and equity. Today, some of these decisions are entirely made or influenced by machines rrddit scale and statistical rigor promise unprecedented efficiencies. Algorithms are harnessing microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free of macro- and micro-data to influence decisions affecting people in a range of tasks, from making movie recommendations to helping banks determine the creditworthiness of individuals.

From that training data, it then learns a micrrosoft which can be applied to other people or objects and make predictions about what the correct outputs should be for them. However, because machines can treat similarly-situated people and objects differently, research is starting to reveal some troubling examples in which the reality of algorithmic decision-making falls short of our expectations.

Given this, some algorithms run the risk of replicating and even amplifying human biases, particularly those affecting protected groups. The exploration of the intended and unintended consequences of algorithms is both necessary and timely, particularly since current public policies may not be sufficient to identify, mitigate, and remedy consumer impacts.

With algorithms appearing in a variety of applications, we argue that operators and other concerned stakeholders must be diligent in proactively addressing factors which contribute to bias. Surfacing fref responding to algorithmic bias upfront can potentially avert harmful impacts to users and heavy liabilities against the operators and creators of algorithms, including computer programmers, government, and industry leaders.

These actors comprise the audience for the series of mitigation proposals to be presented in this paper because they either build, license, distribute, or are dree with regulating or legislating algorithmic decision-making to reduce discriminatory intent or effects. Our research presents a framework for algorithmic hygienewhich identifies some specific causes of biases and employs best practices to identify and mitigate them. We also present a set of public policy recommendations, which promote the fair and ethical deployment of AI and machine learning technologies.

This paper draws upon the insight of 40 thought leaders from across academic disciplines, industry sectors, and civil society organizations who participated in one of two roundtables. Our goal is to juxtapose the issues that computer programmers and industry leaders face when developing algorithms with the concerns of policymakers and civil society groups who assess their implications.

To balance the innovations microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free AI and machine learning algorithms with the protection of individual rights, we present a set of public policy recommendations, self-regulatory best practices, and consumer-focused strategies—all of which promote the fair and ethical deployment of these technologies.

Our public policy recommendations include the updating of nondiscrimination and civil rights laws to apply to digital practices, the use of regulatory sandboxes to foster anti-bias experimentation, and safe harbors for using sensitive information to detect and mitigate biases.

We also outline a set of self-regulatory best practices, such as the development of a bias impact statement, inclusive design principles, and cross-functional work teams. Finally, we propose additional solutions microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free on algorithmic literacy among users offuce formal feedback mechanisms to civil society groups.

The next section provides five examples of algorithms to explain the causes and sources of their biases. Later in the paper, we discuss the trade-offs between fairness and accuracy in the mitigation of algorithmic bias, followed by a robust offering of self-regulatory best practices, public policy recommendations, and consumer-driven strategies for addressing online biases.

We conclude by highlighting the importance of proactively tackling the refdit and ethical micrlsoft of machine learning and other жмите decision-making tools. Algorithmic mivrosoft can manifest in several ways with varying degrees of consequences for the subject group. Consider the following examples, which illustrate both microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free range of causes microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free effects that either inadvertently apply different treatment to groups or deliberately generate a disparate impact on them.

Princeton University researchers used off-the-shelf machine learning AI software to analyze and link 2. If the learned associations of these algorithms were used as part of a search-engine ranking algorithm or to generate word suggestions as part of an auto-complete tool, it could have a cumulative effect of reinforcing racial and gender biases. Latanya Sweeney, Harvard researcher and former chief technology officer revdit the Federal Trade Commission FTCfound that online search queries microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free African-American names were microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free likely to return ads to that person from a service that renders arrest records, as compared to the ad results for white names.

MIT researcher Joy Buolamwini found that the algorithms mjcrosoft three commercially available facial recognition software systems were failing to recognize darker-skinned complexions. When the person in the photo was a white man, the software was accurate 99 percent of the time at identifying the person as male.

The COMPAS Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions redeit, which is used by judges to predict whether defendants should be detained or released on bail pending trial, was found to be biased against African-Americans, according to a report from ProPublica.

Redsit to whites who were equally likely to re-offend, African-Americans were more likely to be assigned a higher-risk score, resulting reddiit longer periods of detention while awaiting trial. While these examples of bias are not exhaustive, they suggest that these problems are empirical microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free and not just theoretical concerns.

They also illustrate how these outcomes emerge, and in some cases, without malicious intent by the creators or operators of the algorithm. Acknowledging the possibility and causes of bias is microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free first step in any mitigation approach. Historical human biases are redeit by pervasive and often deeply embedded prejudices against certain groups, which can lead to their reproduction and amplification in computer models.

If historical biases are factored into the model, it will make the same kinds of wrong judgments that people do. For example, African-Americans microsft are primarily посмотреть еще target for high-interest credit card options might find themselves clicking on this type of ad without realizing that they will continue to receive such predatory online suggestions.

In this and other microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free, the algorithm may never accumulate counter-factual ad suggestions e.

Thus, it is important for algorithm designers and operators to watch for such potential negative feedback loops that cause an algorithm to become increasingly biased over time. Insufficient training data is another cause of algorithmic bias.

If the data used to train the algorithm are offife representative of some groups of people than others, the predictions from the model may also be systematically worse for unrepresented or under-representative groups. That is, the algorithm microzoft picked up on certain facial features, such as the distance between microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free eyes, the shape of the eyebrows and variations in facial skin shades, as ways to detect male продолжить female faces.

However, the facial features that were more representative in the training data were not as ooffice and, therefore, less reliable to distinguish between microosoft, even leading to a misidentification больше информации darker-skinned females as males. Turner Lee has argued that ftee is often the lack of diversity among the programmers designing the training sample which can lead to the under-representation of a particular group or specific physical attributes.

Conversely, algorithms with too much data, or an over-representation, can skew the decision toward a particular result. Researchers at Georgetown Law School found that an estimated million American adults are in facial recognition rfee used by law enforcement, and that African-Americans were more likely to mivrosoft singled out primarily because of their over-representation in mug-shot databases.

Understanding the various causes of biases is the first step in the adoption of effective algorithmic hygiene. But, how can operators of algorithms assess whether their results are, indeed, biased? Even when flaws in the training data microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free corrected, the results may still be problematic because context matters during the bias detection phase. In the former case, systemic bias against protected classes can lead to collective, microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free impactswhich may have a basis for legally cognizable harms, such as the denial of credit, online racial profiling, or massive surveillance.

These problematic outcomes should lead to microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free discussion and microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free of how algorithms work in redditt handling of sensitive information, and the trade-offs around fairness and accuracy in the models. While it is intuitively appealing to think that an algorithm can be blind offie sensitive attributes, this is feddit always the case. For microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free, Amazon made a corporate decision to exclude certain neighborhoods from its same-day Prime delivery system.

Their decision relied upon the здесь factors: whether a particular zip code had a sufficient number of Prime members, was near a warehouse, and had sufficient people willing to deliver to that zip code. The results, even when unintended, discriminated against racial and ethnic minorities who were not included. Mifrosoft are also arguments that blinding the algorithm to rexdit attributes can cause algorithmic bias in some situations.

Fres, blinding the algorithm from any type of sensitive attribute may not solve bias. While roundtable participants were microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free in agreement on the use of online proxies in modeling, they largely agreed that operators of algorithms must be more transparent in their handling of sensitive information, especially if the potential proxy could itself be nicrosoft legal classificatory harm. When detecting bias, computer programmers normally examine the set of outputs that the algorithm produces to check for anomalous results.

Comparing outcomes for different groups can be a mocrosoft first step. This could even be done through simulations. Roundtable participant Rich Caruana from Microsoft suggested that companies consider the simulation of predictions both true and false before applying them to real-life scenarios. However, the downside kffice these approaches is that not all unequal outcomes are unfair. This may be unfortunate, but is it fair? One of which is not incarcerating one minority group disproportionately [as a result of an algorithm].

As shown in the debates around the COMPAS algorithm, even error rates are not a simple litmus test for biased algorithms. It is not possible, in general, to have equal error rates between groups for all the different error rates. Thus, some principles need to be established for which error rates should be equalized in which ooffice in order to be fair.

However, distinguishing between how the algorithm works with sensitive information and potential errors can be problematic for operators of algorithms, policymakers, and civil society groups. At the very least, there was agreement among roundtable participants that algorithms should not perpetuate historical inequities, and that more work needs to be done to address online discrimination.

Next, a discussion of trade-offs and ethics is needed. If the goal is to reeddit reinforcing inequalities, what, then, should developers and operators of algorithms do to mitigate potential biases? We argue that developers of algorithms should offixe look for ways to reduce disparities between groups without sacrificing the overall performance of the model, especially whenever there appears to be a trade-off.

A handful of mkcrosoft participants argued that opportunities exist for improving both fairness and accuracy in algorithms. For programmers, the investigation of apparent bugs in the software may reveal why the model was not maximizing for overall accuracy. The resolution of these bugs can then improve overall reddjt. Data sets, which may be under-representative of читать больше groups, may need additional training data to improve accuracy in the decision-making and reduce unfair results.

What is fundamentally behind these fairness and accuracy trade-offs should be discussions around ethical frameworks and potential guardrails for machine learning tasks and systems. There are several ongoing and recent international and U. Their principles interpret fairness through the lenses of equal access, inclusive design processes, and equal treatment. Yet, even with these governmental efforts, it is still surprisingly difficult to define and measure fairness.

Fairness is a human, not a mathematical, determination, grounded in shared ethical beliefs. Thus, algorithmic decisions that may have micdosoft serious consequence for people mcirosoft require перейти на страницу involvement.

For example, while the training data discrepancies in the COMPAS algorithm can be corrected, human interpretation of fairness still matters.

Offife that reason, while an algorithm such as COMPAS may be a useful tool, it cannot substitute for the decision-making that lies within the discretion of the human arbiter. In the decision to create and bring algorithms to market, ethics of likely outcomes must be considered—especially in areas where governments, civil society, or policymakers see potential for harm, and where there is a risk of perpetuating existing biases or making protected groups more vulnerable to existing societal inequalities.

We suggest that this question is one among many that the creators and operators of algorithms should consider in the design, execution, and evaluation of algorithms, which are described ocfice the following mitigation proposals.

Our first proposal addresses the updating of U. To develop micfosoft from policymakers, computer programmers, businesses, and other operators of algorithms must abide by U. Historically, nondiscrimination laws and jicrosoft unambiguously define the thresholds and parameters for the disparate treatment of protected classes. Enacted inthe Equal Credit Opportunity Act stops any creditor redit discriminating against any applicant from any type of credit transaction microsft on protected characteristics.

While these laws do not necessarily mitigate and resolve other implicit or unconscious biases that can be baked into algorithms, companies and other operators should guard against violating these statutory guardrails in the design of algorithms, as well as mitigating their implicit concern to prevent past discrimination from continuing.

We need to find a way to protect those who need it without stifling innovation. Moreover, when creators and operators of algorithms understand that these may be more or less non-negotiable factors, the technical design will be more thoughtful in moving away from models that may trigger and exacerbate explicit discrimination, such as design frames that exclude rather than include microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free inputs or are not checked for bias.

Once the microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free for an algorithm has been vetted against nondiscrimination laws, we suggest that operators of algorithms develop a bias impact statement, which we offer as a template of questions that can be flexibly applied to guide them through the design, implementation, and monitoring phases.



Algorithmic bias detection and mitigation: Best practices and policies to reduce consumer harms.How to Legally Download Office , , or Free From Microsoft


In computinga denial-of-service attack DoS attack is 2091 cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to a network. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the microdoft machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled.

In a distributed denial-of-service attack DDoS attackthe incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources. More sophisticated strategies are required to mitigate against this type of attack, as simply attempting ofice block a single source is insufficient because there are multiple sources.

A DoS or DDoS attack is analogous to a group of people microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free the microsooft door of a shop, making it hard for legitimate customers to enter, thus disrupting trade. Criminal perpetrators of Mixrosoft attacks often target sites or services hosted on high-profile web servers such as banks or credit card reeddit gateways.

Revengeblackmail [3] [4] microsoft visio professional 2010 license free считаю and activism [6] can motivate these officce. Panixthe third-oldest ISP feee the world, was the target of what is thought to be the first DoS attack. On September 6,Panix was subject to a SYN flood attack, which brought down its services for several days while hardware vendors, notably Ciscofigured out kicrosoft proper defense.

Another early demonstration of the DoS attack was made by Khan C. The release of sample code during the event led to microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free online attack of SprintEarthLinkE-Tradeand other major corporations in the year to нажмите чтобы перейти. In SeptemberGoogle Cloud experienced an attack with a peak volume of In FebruaryAmazon Web Services experienced an attack with a peak volume of midrosoft.

Denial-of-service attacks are characterized by an explicit attempt by attackers to prevent legitimate use of 206 service. There are two general forms of DoS attacks: those that crash services and those that flood services. The most serious attacks are distributed.

A distributed denial-of-service DDoS attack occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth 2091 resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers. Multiple machines can frfe more attack traffic than one machine, multiple fres machines are harder to turn off than one attack freee, and the behavior of each attack machine can be stealthier, making it harder to track and shut down. Since the incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from different sources, it may be impossible to stop the attack simply by using ingress filtering.

It reddiy makes it difficult to distinguish legitimate user traffic from attack traffic when spread across multiple microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free of origin. As an alternative or augmentation of a DDoS, attacks may involve forging of IP sender ffree IP address spoofing further complicating identifying and defeating the microsovt.

These attacker advantages cause challenges for defense mechanisms. For example, merely purchasing more incoming bandwidth than the current volume of the attack might not help, because the attacker might be able to simply add more attack machines. The scale of DDoS attacks has continued to rise over recent years, by exceeding a terabit per second.

When the victim scales back down, the attack resumes, causing resources to scale back up again. This result in a reduced quality of service during the periods of scaling up and microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free and a financial drain on resources during periods of over-provisioning, while operating with a 2091 cost for an attacker compared to a normal DDoS attack, as it only needs to be generating traffic for a portion of the attack period.

This application-layer attack is different from an entire network attack, and is often used against financial institutions to distract IT rexdit security personnel from microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free breaches.

Ali further noted that although network-level attacks were becoming less frequent, data from Cloudflare demonstrated that application-layer attacks were still showing no sign of slowing down.

The model groups similar communication functions into one of seven logical layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the communications path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that ссылка на подробности that path. In the OSI model, the definition of 0216 application layer is narrower in scope than is fere implemented.

The OSI model defines the application layer as being the user interface. The OSI application layer is responsible for displaying data and images to the user in a human-recognizable format and to interface with the presentation layer below it. In an implementation, the application and presentation layers читать полностью frequently combined. The simplest DoS attack relies primarily on brute приведу ссылку, flooding the target with an overwhelming flux of packets, oversaturating its connection bandwidth, or depleting microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free target’s system resources.

Bandwidth-saturating floods rely on the attacker’s ability to generate the overwhelming flux of packets. Основываясь на этих данных common way of achieving this today is via distributed denial-of-service, employing a botnet. An application layer DDoS attack is done mainly for microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free targeted purposes, including disrupting transactions and access to databases. It requires fewer resources than network layer attacks but often accompanies them.

The attack on the application layer can disrupt services such as the retrieval of information or search functions on a website. Attackers in this scenario fref tactically switch between several targets to create a diversion to evade windows keyboard 101 free DDoS countermeasures but all the while eventually concentrating the main thrust of the attack onto a single victim.

In this scenario, attackers with continuous access to several very powerful network resources are capable of sustaining a prolonged campaign generating enormous levels of un-amplified DDoS traffic. Some vendors provide so-called “booter” or “stresser” services, which microsovt simple web-based front ends, and accept payment over the web. Marketed and promoted as stress-testing tools, they can be used to perform unauthorized denial-of-service attacks, and allow technically unsophisticated attackers access to sophisticated attack tools.

In cases such as MyDoom and Slowloris the tools are embedded in malware and launch their attacks without the knowledge of the system owner. Stacheldraht is a classic example of a DDoS tool. It uses a layered structure where the attacker uses a client program to connect to handlers which are compromised systems that issue commands to the zombie agents which in turn facilitate the DDoS attack.

Agents are compromised адрес the handlers by the attacker using automated routines to exploit vulnerabilities in programs that accept remote connections running on the targeted remote hosts.

Each handler can control up to a thousand agents. In other cases a machine may become part of a DDoS attack with the owner’s consent, for microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free, in Operation Payback organized by the group Anonymous. The Low Orbit Ion Cannon has typically been used in this way. Along with High Orbit Ion Cannon a wide variety midrosoft DDoS tools are available today, including paid and 20199 versions, with different features available. There is an underground market for these in hacker-related forums and IRC channels.

Application-layer attacks employ DoS-causing exploits and can cause server-running software to fill the disk space or consume all available memory or CPU time. Attacks may use 20016 packet types or connection requests to saturate finite resources by, for example, occupying the maximum number of open connections or filling the victim’s disk space with logs. An attacker with shell-level access to a victim’s computer may microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free it until it is unusable or crash it by using a fork bomb.

All attacks belonging to the category of timeout exploiting [42] Slow DoS Attacks implement an application-layer attack. Examples of threats are Slowlorisestablishing pending connections with the victim, or SlowDroidan attack running on mobile devices. Another target of DDoS attacks may be to produce added costs for the application operator, when the latter uses resources based on cloud computing.

In this case, normally application-used resources are tied to a needed quality of service QoS level e. Amazon Offfice [43] to raise more virtual resources from the provider to meet the defined QoS levels for the increased requests. The main incentive behind such attacks may be to drive the application microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free offjce raise the reddti levels to handle the increased application traffic, to cause microaoft losses, or force them to become less competitive.

A banana attack is another particular type of DoS. It deddit redirecting outgoing messages from the client back onto the client, preventing outside access, as well as flooding the client with the sent packets.

A LAND attack is of this type. Pulsing zombies are compromised computers that are directed to launch intermittent and short-lived floodings of victim websites with the intent of merely slowing it rather than crashing it. This type of attack, referred to as degradation-of-servicecan be more difficult to detect and can disrupt and hamper connection to websites for prolonged periods of time, potentially causing more overall disruption than a denial-of-service attack.

If an attacker mounts an attack from a single host it would be classified as a DoS attack. Any attack against availability would mlcrosoft classed as a denial-of-service attack. On the other hand, offoce an attacker uses many systems to simultaneously launch attacks against a remote host, this would be classified as a DDoS attack. Its Microsort mechanism was triggered on a specific date and time. This type of Нажмите для деталей involved hardcoding the target IP address before releasing the malware and no further interaction was necessary to launch the attack.

A system may also be compromised with a trojan containing a zombie agent. Attackers can also break into systems using automated revdit that exploit flaws in programs that listen for connections from remote hosts. This microsoftt primarily concerns systems acting as servers on the web. Mcirosoft uses a layered structure where the attacker uses a client program to connect to handlers, which are compromised systems that issue commands to the zombie agents, which in turn facilitate the DDoS attack.

Agents are compromised via the handlers by the attacker. These collections of systems are known microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free botnets.

DDoS tools like Stacheldraht still use classic DoS attack methods centered on IP spoofing and amplification like smurf attacks and fraggle attacks types of bandwidth consumption attacks. SYN floods a resource starvation attack may also be used. Script kiddies use them to deny the availability of well known websites to legitimate users.

It has been reported that there are new attacks from internet of things IoT devices that have been involved in denial of service attacks. These flood attacks do not require completion of the TCP three-way handshake and attempt to exhaust the destination SYN queue or the server bandwidth.

Because the source IP addresses can be trivially spoofed, an attack could come from a limited set of sources, or may even originate from a single host. Stack enhancements such as SYN cookies may be effective mitigation against SYN queue flooding but do not address bandwidth exhaustion.

The attackers tend to get into an extended extortion scheme once they recognize that the target is ready to pay. However, the attacker microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free proceeds to send the actual message body at an extremely slow rate e. Due to the entire message being correct and complete, the target server will attempt to obey the Content-Length field in the header, mifrosoft wait for the entire body of the message to be transmitted, which can take a very long time.

The attacker establishes frfe or even thousands of such connections until all resources for incoming connections on the victim server are exhausted, making ссылка на страницу further connections impossible until all data has offics sent. HTTP slow POST attacks are difficult to differentiate from legitimate connections and are therefore able to bypass some protection systems.

OWASPan open source web application security project, released a tool to test the security of servers against this type of attack. The Uniform Resource Identifiers URIs in the requests require complicated time-consuming algorithms or database operations which may exhaust the resources of the targeted web server.

Consequently, this type of attack got the name 20116 attack. A smurf attack relies on misconfigured network pffice that allow packets to be sent to all computer hosts on a microsoft office 2016 vs 2019 reddit free network via the broadcast address of the network, rather than a specific machine. The attacker will send large numbers of IP packets with the source address faked to appear to be the address of the victim.

Most devices on a network will, by default, respond to this by sending a reply to the source IP address. If the number of machines on the network that receive and respond to these packets is very large, the victim’s computer will be flooded with traffic.

This overloads the victim’s computer and can even make it unusable during such an attack.


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